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Comparison of computer assisted cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning: An example of Turkey


Computer assisted instruction / learning (CAI/CAL) brings with it the possibility that student introduction with computers may result in less interaction with teachers and classmates. This possibility is increased when individualistic assumption guides CAI. In a cooperative learning situation, when one student achieves his or her goal, all others with home he or she is cooperatively linked achieves their goals. In a competitive learning situation when one student achieves his or her goal, all others with home he or she is cooperatively linked failed to achieves their goalsv(Johnson&Johnson,1975). In the last decade, the community working on computer assisted learning has started considering a different type of learning as an alternative to traditional ones. These are especially collaborative of cooperative learning and competitive group cognition. Co-operative learning is an instructional technique whereby students work together in small fixed groups on a structured task (Cooper, 1995). Recent research on the role of collaboration in learning has tried to find deeper theoretical frameworks that could better guide the developing of technology-aided learning environments. A distinction between co-operation and collaboration which is based on different ideas of the role and participation of individual members in the activity is conceptually central in this review.
There is this agreement among the researchers as to whether the instructional use of computers with affect students’ achievement. The basic positions are that the individualistic use of computers rises student achievement ( Kulik,Bangert&Willioms,1983) and that the computer is a vehicle that delivers instruction but thus not in an of itself affect student achievement (Klark,1983). Since cooperatively structural learning tends to promote higer achievents than do competitive and individualistic learning situations (Johnson&Johnson, 1981). If the computer increases student achievements in individualistic learning situations, it may be hypothesized that computer-assisted individualistic instruction may promote higer achievement than computer-assisted competitive or cooperative instruction.
The first aim of this study is to clarify this issue. For this purpose the effect of computer assisted collaborative (CACL), and individualistic learning (CAIL) in chemistry teaching on students’ achievement and attitudes towards chemistry were carried out. The methods were applied to the sample of first year prospective chemistry and prospective science teachers when they were taking the course of general chemistry. A computer software program (Active Chemistry Education Package) was designed for both methods for the topic of chemical bonding. Additionally, worksheets were designed specifically for computer assisted collaborative learning environments. All prepared teaching materials were based on 7E model. As a result of this study it was found out that both CACL and CAIL have positive effects on students’ achievement and attitudes. However, significant differences were found in favor of CACL.

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